Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For those who have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you may well be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have exactly the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to possess a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas before the miscarriage would have appeared to be just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. Due to this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is often unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. miscarriage If a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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